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A good balanced phosphate and nitrogen nutrition is necessary for maximizing crop yields. Monsanto BioAg currently offers 4 biological technologies that work alone or in combination to improve nutrient availability for plant uptake:

Rhizobia, Mycorrhizae, Penicillium bilaii and LCO (lipo-chitooligosaccharide)

1 - Rhizobia to induce efficient nodulation and nitrogen fixation: 

High-performing commercial rhizobia have two characteristics: infectiveness and effectiveness. Infectiveness is the ability of a Rhizobium strain to nodulate. The most successful strains are chosen for their ability to successfully compete with other strains and become the primary source of nodulation. We also choose rhizobia for environmental survivability. Effectiveness of a Rhizobium strain is the ability to efficiently fix nitrogen. Monsanto BioAg field-tests and chooses strains that have proven to be reliable and efficient in fixing nitrogen. 

2 - Mycorrhizae to increase the likelihood of nutrient absorption: 

Mycorrhizal fungi colonize roots to form a beneficial symbiotic relationship with plants. Mycorrhizae improve the plant performance by increasing root development, thereby making more nutrients available and enhancing the plant growth.


3 - Penicillium bilaii to release “bound” phosphate making it immediately available for the crop to use: 

Penicillium bilaii colonizes (grows along) plant roots, releasing compounds that release the bound mineral forms of soil and fertilizer phosphate, making it more available for the crop to use. Penicillium bilaii does not replace the need for phosphate fertilizer, but may provide crops access to more nutrients for higher yield potential.

4 - LCO (lipo-chitooligosaccharide) to improve the soil characteristics by increasing levels and activity of rhizobia/mycorrhizal fungi in the soil:

LCOs are natural, microbially-produced molecules and are centrally-involved in the symbiotic association between plant roots and common agriculture inoculant symbionts. Both for leguminous (e.g., soybean) and non-leguminous crops (e.g., Corn) LCOs enhance the symbiotic relationship between the plant and associated microorganisms and can ultimately lead to increased nutrient uptake through the roots.






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